Segmented Retained Wall Model: Interface Element

Hi All,

I am dealing with a forensic investigation of a segmented retaining wall (SRW) failure and its remedial measure. We performed extensive field investigations, laboratory tests, and instrumentation monitoring. In the present phase of the project, I am using three codes/software for coupled finite element modeling of the SRW wall (HM model). These are OpenGeoSys, FLAC, and Plaxis.

About Retaining Wall:

Length = 1400 ft, maximum height = 60 ft. KeyStrips steel was used for reinforcement and connected with a Segmented Retaining Wall (SRW) block using metal pins (rigid connection model). In contrast, SRW walls batter controlled using fiberglass pins (flexible connection model).

Drainage gravel = 24 in., Reinforced Zone = 40 ft. and Retained Zone = 200 ft.

I need to setup interface elements

— in between two SRW block units

— interface of SRW unit and drainage fills

— interface of KeyStrip and fill materials

FEM modeling of the segmental retaining wall is close to Hatami and Bathurst (2005).

I am wondering, is there an interface elements model in OpenGeoSys? I have also attached the interface element model in FLAC and Plaxis. Additionally, I found Watanabe et al. (2012) for the lower dimensional interface elements, but constitutive model looks slightly different.

Thanks in advance.

Regards,

Mohammad

References:

Hatami, K.; Bathurst, R.J. Development and verification of a numerical model for the analysis of geosynthetic-reinforced soil segmental walls under working stress conditions. Canadian Geotechnical Journal 2005, 42, 1066-1085, doi:10.1139/t05-040.
Hatami and Bathurst (2005)

Watanabe, N.; Wang, W.; Taron, J.; Görke, U.J.; Kolditz, O. Lower-dimensional interface elements with local enrichment: application to coupled hydro-mechanical problems in discretely fractured porous media. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Engineering 2012, 90, 1010-1034, doi:10.1002/nme.3353.

Plaxis Interface Element

FLAC Interface Element